Pigeon Data

Pigeon reference value tables*

 Physiological and Reproductive Facts  (Columba Livia)
Weight 200-600 grams
(Cloacal) Body Temperature 103-109ºF
Heart Rate 140-400 beats per minute
(Resting) Respiratory Rate 20-30 breaths per minute
(Average) Blood Volume 32 ml
Longevity 15-20 years
Molt Annually (Autumn, starting late August)
Water Consumption 20-60 ml
Feed Consumption (seeds, grains) 20-100 grams
Sexual Maturity 4-6 months
Clutch Size 2
Incubation Period 17-19 days
Weaning 28 days
Hematologic Reference Ranges                        Columba livia       Blood collection volume: 1% of total body weight in healthy birds. Sites: basilic and medial metatarsal veins.
PCV (%) 39.3-59.4
RBC (106/µL) 2.1-4.2
Hgb (g/dL) 10.7-14.9
MCV (fL) 118-144
MCH (pg) 32-48
MCHC (g/dL) 20-30
WBC (103/µL)

Heterophils (%)

Lymphocytes (%)

Monocytes (%)

Eosinophils (%)

Basophils (%)

H:L ratio








Serum Biochemical Values (Columba livia)
ALP (U/L) 160-780
ALT (U/L) 19-48
AST (U/L) 45-123
Bile acid (µmol/L)




Calcium (mg/dL) 7.6-10.4
Chloride (mEq/L) 101-113
CK (U/L) 110-480
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.3-0.4
GGT (U/L) 0-2.9
Glucose (mg/dL) 232-269
LDH (U/L) 30-205
Phosphorus (mg/dL) 1.8-4.1
Potassium (mEq/L) 3.9-4.7
Protein, total (g/dL)

Albumin (g/dL)

Globulin (g/dL)

A:G ratio





Sodium (mEq/L) 141-149
Uric acid (mg/dL) 2.5-12.9

*Table reference values and data compiled from:

Carpenter, James W. “Birds.” Exotic Animal Formulary. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders, 2013. 352-53. Print.

Johnson-Delaney, Cathy A. “Pigeons.” The Avian Module for the Exotic Companion Medicine Handbook. Lake Worth, FL: Zoological Education Network, 2005. 4-7. Print.

Pollock C. Venipuncture in birds. June 12, 2015. LafeberVet Web site. Available at http://lafeber.com/vet/venipuncture/

Walker, Colin. “Did You Know?” The Flying Vet’s Pigeon Health & Management: A Veterinary Guide to Health Control, Medication Use and the Development of Race Fitness for the Competitive Fancier. Wantirna South, Victoria: Walker, 2000. 33-35. Print.

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